Digital Library

Concepts of Digitization and Digital Library

As defined by Reitz (2008), digitization is “the process of converting data to digital format for processing by a computer. In information systems, digitization usually refers to the conversion of printed text or images (photographs, illustrations, maps, etc.) into binary signals using some kind of scanning device that enables the result to be displayed on a computer screen.” She also defines digital library as the “library in which a significant proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format (as opposed to print or micro-form), accessible by means of computers”.Digital Library1

The digital libraries store, organize and disseminate digital contents. These contents are created either through digitization of existing printed materials and media documents, or through re-keying/re-composing of existing printed materials and media documents, or through creating new documents in digital formats. The first kind of documents is known as digitized documents, and the later kind of documents is known as born digital documents. In Indian digital libraries both kinds of documents are available. The digitized documents are stored either in image formats or in text formats. If the original documents are available in European languages such as English, French, German and Spanish, the optical character recognition (OCR) software can automatically convert them into searchable digital text format, where qualitative OCR conversion rate is much higher. On the other hand, if the original documents are available in Indian languages such as Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, Oriya, Telugu and Tamil, the contents are made available either in image formats or re-keying the texts for the inclusion in the digital libraries. OCR software for Indian languages is still in the developmental or testing stage, where OCR conversion rate is much lower than acceptable rate. The full-text searching is possible in textual documents but this facility is absent in image documents.

Documents and Collections in Digital Library Systems.

Digital library is the concept of information stored digitally and made accessible to users through digital systems and networks, but having no single location. It is, therefore, analogous to a library as a storehouse of information, but has a virtual existence in the digital spaces. Digital library is essentially a fully automated information system with all resources in digital form. Many views of digital libraries stem from what libraries currently do. Traditional libraries collect, organize, provide access to, and preserve objects in their collections. A library collection may include books, magazines, journals, theses, dissertations, manuscripts, audio-visuals, maps, etc. The flexibility of digital technology allows it to handle new kinds of object efficiently. Digital library collections can include things without direct physical analogs, such as algorithms or real time data feeds. They also may include digitized representations of what have traditionally appeared largely in museums and archives. With the rise of cost of paper publications and library storage, increasing use of computers, decreasing budgets, many libraries have to reduce their acquisition of books as well as their journal subscriptions. Documents in electronic form can become more easily available and widely used because the cost of digital storage and processing is going down.

Documents are the heart of digital libraries. Without documents there would be no digital libraries. In digital libraries, documents are not only what are stored in traditional libraries (e.g., books, journals, pictures and videos), but also include many works uncommon to those libraries, e.g., multilingual, multimedia, and structured documents (e.g., books broken into chapters, sections, subsections, figures with attached captions, colour graphics or images, attached or linked sound or video files, appendices, indexes, and ‘front matter’); programs, algorithms, bulletin board archives, besides others. A document can have various representations depending on its intended use; for example, some applications require high-resolution images of documents with invisible watermarks for security purposes as well as low-resolution images for children to download from the Internet. Collections of digital library ranges from small, self-contained, and narrowly defined collections to ones spread across physical and logical spaces. One of the common requirements for a digital library is the ability to deal with distributed collections of information.

Evaluation of Digitization Work and Digital Library System.

A digital library may be evaluated from a number of perspectives, such as collaboration pattern, system, access and usability, user interfaces, information retrieval, content and domain, services, cost and overall benefits and impact. An important issue under discussion across various communities is the set of metrics to be used for evaluating digital libraries. Selection of digital library metrics should be considered from both system-oriented and user-oriented viewpoints. From the system’s perspective, we consider capacity (number of digital objects stored and number of users served simultaneously), content, transaction speed (speed of search response). From the user’s perspective, we consider impacts of the system on the user (e.g., impact on patterns of association and attitudes about the digital libraries), effectiveness (relevance of the results; ability to produce a ranked list of results that are mostly relevant with best matches at the top), usability (e.g., ease of use, suitability to purpose, user’s effort), interactions with the system, and user satisfaction.

In a general way, the constructs or elements for evaluation of digitization projects covered in this study are:

  • Collaboration pattern for collection building;
  • Collaboration pattern for resources mobilization and utilization;
  • Selection of contents for digitization;
  • Digitization workflow;
  • Interpretation, representation and metadata;
  • Access and distribution — open access versus campus-wide (closed) access;
  • User interfaces — search and retrieval; and
  • Integration, cooperation with other resources and libraries.



library is a curated collection of sources of information and similar resources, selected by experts and made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing, often in a quiet environment conducive to study. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical location or a virtual space, or both. A library’s collection can include booksperiodicalsnewspapersmanuscriptsfilmsmapsprintsdocumentsmicroformCDscassettesvideotapesDVDsBlu-ray Discse-booksaudiobooksdatabases, and other formats. Libraries range widely in size up to millions of items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē (Greek: βιβλιοθήκη): derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque.

The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. Private or personal libraries made up of written books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the very close of the Classical period, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria. The libraries of Timbuktu were also established around this time and attracted scholars from all over the world.

A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to—or cannot afford to—purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs. Libraries often provide quiet areas for studying, and they also often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries often provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources and the Internet.

Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. They are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing very large amounts of information with a variety of digital resources. Libraries are increasingly becoming community hubs where programs are delivered and people engage in lifelong learning.


The history of libraries began with the first efforts to organize collections of documents. Topics of interest include accessibility of the collection, acquisition of materials, arrangement and finding tools, the book trade, the influence of the physical properties of the different writing materials, language distribution, role in education, rates of literacy, budgets, staffing, libraries for specially targeted audiences, architectural merit, patterns of usage, and the role of libraries in a nation’s cultural heritage, and the role of government, church or private sponsorship. Since the 1960s, issues of computerization and digitization have arisen.


Poet Laureate Rita Dove‘s definition of a library at entrance to the Maine State Library in AugustaMaine, United States

Many institutions make a distinction between a circulating or lending library, where materials are expected and intended to be loaned to patrons, institutions, or other libraries, and a reference library where material is not lent out. Travelling libraries, such as the early horseback libraries of eastern Kentucky[1] and bookmobiles, are generally of the lending type. Modern libraries are often a mixture of both, containing a general collection for circulation, and a reference collection which is restricted to the library premises. Also, increasingly, digital collections enable broader access to material that may not circulate in print, and enables libraries to expand their collections even without building a larger facility. Lamba (2019) reinforced this idea by observing that “today’s libraries have become increasingly multi-disciplinary, collaborative and networked” and that applying Web 2.0 tools to libraries would “not only connect the users with their community and enhance communication but will also help the librarians to promote their library’s activities, services, and products to target both their actual and potential users”.[2]

Academic libraries

The round reading room of Maughan Library, the main university library of King’s College London, London, England

Academic libraries are generally located on college and university campuses and primarily serve the students and faculty of that and other academic institutions. Some academic libraries, especially those at public institutions, are accessible to members of the general public in whole or in part.

The University Library in Budapest, Hungary

Academic libraries are libraries that are hosted in post-secondary educational institutions, such as colleges and universities. Their main function are to provide support in research and resource linkage for students and faculty of the educational institution. Specific course-related resources are usually provided by the library, such as copies of textbooks and article readings held on ‘reserve’ (meaning that they are loaned out only on a short-term basis, usually a matter of hours). Some academic libraries provide resources not usually associated with libraries, such as the ability to check out laptop computers, web cameras, or scientific calculators.

Academic libraries offer workshops and courses outside of formal, graded coursework, which are meant to provide students with the tools necessary to succeed in their programs.[3] These workshops may include help with citations, effective search techniques, journal databases, and electronic citation software. These workshops provide students with skills that can help them achieve success in their academic careers (and often, in their future occupations), which they may not learn inside the classroom.

The Robarts Library at the University of Toronto, Canada

The academic library provides a quiet study space for students on campus; it may also provide group study space, such as meeting rooms. In North America, Europe, and other parts of the world, academic libraries are becoming increasingly digitally oriented. The library provides a “gateway” for students and researchers to access various resources, both print/physical and digital.[4] Academic institutions are subscribing to electronic journals databases, providing research and scholarly writing software, and usually provide computer workstations or computer labs for students to access journals, library search databases and portals, institutional electronic resources, Internet access, and course- or task-related software (i.e. word processing and spreadsheet software). Some academic libraries take on new roles, for instance, acting as an electronic repository for institutional scholarly research and academic knowledge, such as the collection and curation of digital copies of students’ theses and dissertations.[5][6] Moreover, academic libraries are increasingly acting as publishers on their own on a not-for-profit basis, especially in the form of fully Open Access institutional publishers.[7]

Children’s libraries

A children’s library in Montreal, Quebec, Canada in 1943

Children’s libraries are special collections of books intended for juvenile readers and usually kept in separate rooms of general public libraries. Some children’s libraries have entire floors or wings dedicated to them in bigger libraries while smaller ones may have a separate room or area for children. They are an educational agency seeking to acquaint the young with the world’s literature and to cultivate a love for reading. Their work supplements that of the public schools.[8]

Services commonly provided by public libraries may include storytelling sessions for infants, toddlers, preschool children, or after-school programs, all with an intention of developing early literacy skills and a love of books. One of the most popular programs offered in public libraries are summer reading programs for children, families, and adults.[9]

Another popular reading program for children is PAWS TO READ or similar programs where children can read to certified therapy dogs. Since animals are a calming influence and there is no judgment, children learn confidence and a love of reading. Many states have these types of programs: parents need simply ask their librarian to see if it is available at their local library.[10]

National libraries

national or state library serves as a national repository of information, and has the right of legal deposit, which is a legal requirement that publishers in the country need to deposit a copy of each publication with the library. Unlike a public library, a national library rarely allows citizens to borrow books. Often, their collections include numerous rare, valuable, or significant works. There are wider definitions of a national library, putting less emphasis on the repository character.[11][12] The first national libraries had their origins in the royal collections of the sovereign or some other supreme body of the state.

Many national libraries cooperate within the National Libraries Section of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) to discuss their common tasks, define and promote common standards, and carry out projects helping them to fulfill their duties. The national libraries of Europe participate in The European Library which is a service of the Conference of European National Librarians (CENL).

Public lending libraries

Raczyński Library, the public library of Poznań, Poland

A public library provides services to the general public. If the library is part of a countywide library system, citizens with an active library card from around that county can use the library branches associated with the library system. A library can serve only their city, however, if they are not a member of the county public library system. Much of the materials located within a public library are available for borrowing. The library staff decides upon the number of items patrons are allowed to borrow, as well as the details of borrowing time allotted. Typically, libraries issue library cards to community members wishing to borrow books. Often visitors to a city are able to obtain a public library card.

A community library in Ethiopia

Many public libraries also serve as community organizations that provide free services and events to the public, such as reading groups and toddler story time. For many communities, the library is a source of connection to a vast world, obtainable knowledge and understanding, and entertainment. According to a study by the Pennsylvania Library Association, public library services play a major role in fighting rising illiteracy rates among youths.[13] Public libraries are protected and funded by the public they serve.

Bates Hall, the main reading room of the Boston Public Library, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

As the number of books in libraries have steadily increased since their inception, the need for compact storage and access with adequate lighting has grown. The stack system involves keeping a library’s collection of books in a space separate from the reading room. This arrangement arose in the 19th century. Book stacks quickly evolved into a fairly standard form in which the cast iron and steel frameworks supporting the bookshelves also supported the floors, which often were built of translucent blocks to permit the passage of light (but were not transparent, for reasons of modesty). The introduction of electrical lighting had a huge impact on how the library operated. The use of glass floors was largely discontinued, though floors were still often composed of metal grating to allow air to circulate in multi-story stacks. As more space was needed, a method of moving shelves on tracks (compact shelving) was introduced to cut down on otherwise wasted aisle space.

Library 2.0, a term coined in 2005, is the library’s response to the challenge of Google and an attempt to meet the changing needs of users by using web 2.0 technology. Some of the aspects of Library 2.0 include, commenting, tagging, bookmarking, discussions, use of online social networks by libraries, plug-ins, and widgets.[14] Inspired by web 2.0, it is an attempt to make the library a more user-driven institution.

Despite the importance of public libraries, they are routinely having their budgets cut by state legislature. Funding has dwindled so badly that many public libraries have been forced to cut their hours and release employees.[15]

Reference libraries

Main Reading Room of the New York City Public Library on 5th Avenue ca, 1910–1920

A reference library does not lend books and other items; instead, they can only be read at the library itself. Typically, such libraries are used for research purposes, for example at a university. Some items at reference libraries may be historical and even unique. Many lending libraries contain a “reference section”, which holds books, such as dictionaries, which are common reference books, and are therefore not lent out.[16] Such reference sections may be referred to as “reading rooms”, which may also include newspapers and periodicals.[17] An example of a reading room is the Hazel H. Ransom Reading Room at the Harry Ransom Center of the University of Texas at Austin, which maintains the papers of literary agent Audrey Wood.[18]

Research libraries

Quaid-e-Azam Library in Bagh-e-Jinnah, Lahore, Pakistan

A research library is a collection of materials on one or more subjects.[19] A research library supports scholarly or scientific research and will generally include primary as well as secondary sources; it will maintain permanent collections and attempt to provide access to all necessary materials. A research library is most often an academic or national library, but a large special library may have a research library within its special field, and a very few of the largest public libraries also serve as research libraries. A large university library may be considered a research library; and in North America, such libraries may belong to the Association of Research Libraries.[20] In the United Kingdom, they may be members of Research Libraries UK (RLUK).[21]

A research library can be either a reference library, which does not lend its holdings, or a lending library, which does lend all or some of its holdings. Some extremely large or traditional research libraries are entirely reference in this sense, lending none of their materials; most academic research libraries, at least in the US and the UK, now lend books, but not periodicals or other materials. Many research libraries are attached to a parental organization and serve only members of that organization. Examples of research libraries include the British Library, the Bodleian Library at Oxford University and the New York Public Library Main Branch on 42nd Street in Manhattan, State Public Scientific Technological Library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science.

Codes of conduct

Libraries may have rules which limit noise levels, the use of mobile phones, and/or the consumption of food and drink. [35]

In UK local authority libraries, this has been challenged recently as toddler ‘bounce and rhyme’ sessions have been held [36]. Noise levels in public libraries have become a matter of controversy

Anatomy & Physiology Lab

Human Anatomy 

Human Anatomy and Physiology is a laboratory-based course that investigates the structure and function of the human body. Topics covered will include the basic organization of the body and major body systems along with the impact of diseases on certain systems. Students will engage in many topics and competencies related to understanding the structure and function of the human body. Working  with topics of basic anatomical terminology to the biochemical composition of the human body, all the way into great detail of each of the major systems of the body, students will learn through reading, video lessons, casestudies, collaborative group work, interactive notebook projects, and labs. Students will be responsible for proper use of lab equipment, lab reports, research and projects assigned throughout each unit. Dissection of a fetal pig and other appropriate organs will complement our course work.  One of the goals of this course is to prepare students with the skills necessary to be successful in future science classes in college and medical fields.

 Introduction Human Body

• Overview of organ systems

• Directional and regional terms

• Cavities and planes

• Homeostasis and negative and positive feedback systems

• Medical Terminology

2.Histology & Levels of organization

  • List the levels of organization
    Name and describe the four basic tissue types and their functions
  • Explain where each tissue type is used in the body
  • Describe the components and the function of Extra Cellular Matric
  • Investigate common causes of cancer and how various tissues, organs, and body systems are affected

3. Digestive System and Urinary System

• Structure and Functions of organs

• Modes of mechanical digestion

• Chemical digestion (hormones, enzymes, pH)

• Absorption and elimination

• Name parts of GI Tract and accessory organs

• Nutrition and metabolism (production of ATP)

4.  Nervous System

• Functions of nervous system

• Describe the parts of neurons and define the terms nerve, ganglion, tract

• Explain how a myelin sheath is created

• Neural physiology (action potential, synaptic transmission, Na/K pump)

• Brain anatomy and hemispheres

• PNS (autonomic and somatic), fight or flight

• List the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and describe the function and the body regions innervated by each

5.  Cardiovascular System

• Structure and Functions of circulatory system

• Heart structures (chambers, valves, vessels)

• Circulatory routes (systemic, pulmonary, coronary and hepatic portal)

• Blood vessels and pressure

• Blood components, function and typing

• Blood clotting • Regulation and conduction (EKG)

6.   Skeletal System

• Structure and Functions of skeletal system

• Anatomy of long bone

• Bone histology

• Naming all bones of axial and appendicular skeleton

• Formation, growth and repair

• Structural and functional classification of joints

• Types of movement

• Calcium homeostas

7.  Muscular System

• Structure and of muscular system

• Names of all major muscles

• Origin, insertion and action

• Sliding Filament Model

• Neuromuscular junction

• Physiology of muscle contraction

• Muscle metabolism (ATP)

• Fiber types

8. Lymphatic/Immune System

• Functions of lymphatic system

• Structures (vessels, nodes, cells)

• Lines of defense

• Humoral immune response

• Cell mediated immune response

• Immune cell types

• Disease/AIDS

9.  Respiratory System

• Functions of respiratory system

• Anatomy of respiratory tract

• Mechanics and regulation of breathing

• Gas exchange and gas laws

• Hemoglobin and oxygen transport


  • Endocrine System
  • Reproductive System
  • Integumentary System

Introduction to Human Anatomy & Physiology

Anatomical Position and Planes

Anatomical Position


When anatomists or health professionals identify the location of a structure in the human body, they do so in reference to a body in anatomical position. That is, they figure out the location based on the assumption that the body is starting out in anatomical position.

Anatomical position for a human is when the human stands up, faces forward, has arms extended, and has palms facing out.

Drawing of a man and woman, both facing forward, with their palms facing out.

Figure 1-1. These two people are both in anatomical position.

When referencing a structure that is on one side of the body or the other, we use the terms “anatomical right” and “anatomical left.” Anatomical right means that the structure is on the side that a person in anatomical position would consider their right-hand side (not necessarily on the right of the viewer) and anatomical left means that the structure is the side that a person in anatomical position would consider their left-hand side (which likewise is not necessarily the left side of the viewer.)

Anatomical planes


To view the interior of a body, we expose the organs and structures that are visible when that body is cut open along one of four commonly used sectional planes. These planes are the different directions a body is cut to reveal different views of its internal structures.

  • Frontal planeA vertical cut that separates the front from the back of the specimen. Also known as a coronal plane.
  • Transverse planeA horizontal cut that separates the top from the bottom of the specimen. Also known as a cross-sectional plane.
  • Midsagittal planeA vertical cut down the exact center line of the specimen that separates the left half from the right half.
  • Parasagittal planeA vertical cut that is off-center that separates the left of the specimen from the right in unequal portions. It does not matter whether it is the left side or the right side that is larger, as long as they are not equal.
Computer generated image of a person's head, showing the transverse cut as a sheet of paper going from the nose out the back of the head, the frontal (coronal) plane as a paper slicing from the tip of the skill down towards the center of the neck and between the ears, the midsagittal plane as a slice from the tip of the head through the neck but cutting along the nose line, and a parasagittal plane as a similar slice (from the tip of the head down to the neck, but through the eye and cheek)

Anatomical Vocabulary

Anatomical nouns and adjective for external body parts


Like all areas of science, there is a lot of jargon associated with anatomy and physiology. Often terms are used within the field that differ from what we would name things in everyday conversation. Such jargon usually allows the specialist in the field to be more precise in what exactly they are referring to, but the jargon also can be intimidating and exclusionary. If you don’t know it, you are not in the club.


Here are a bunch anatomical adjectives (followed in parentheses by the noun version of the same term). For each, use your smart phone or laptop or whatever is most convenient to you to find what body part the term refers to. (Shortcut hint: the Google search engine will return definitions for words if you type “define: word” in the search box, leaving out the quotation marks.)

Write down the body part or body region next to each term. Use Figure 1.4 to help you make sure you have the correct definition, but look up each definition to make sure you are being accurate.

  1. Find the body part or region indicated by each of the following terms. Use everyday language to describe the part or region. (Forearm, belly, etc.)
Abdominal (abdomen) Acromial (acromion)
Antebrachial (antebrachium) Antecubital (antecubitis)
Auricle (auris) Axillary (axilla)
Brachial (brachium) Buccal (bucca)
Carpal (carpus) Cephalic (cephalus)
Cervical (cervicis) Coxal (coxa)
Cranial (cranium) Crural (crus)
Digital (digit) Dorsal (dorsa)
Facial (facies) Femoral (femur)
Frontal (frons) Gluteal (gluteus)
Inguinal (inguen) Lumbar (lumbus)
Mammary (mamma) Manual (manus)
Mental (mentum) Nasal (nasus)
Olecranal (olecranon) Oral (oris)
Ocular (oculus) Palmar (palma)
Patellar (patella) Pelvic (pelvis)
Plantar (planta) Popliteal (popliteus)
Pubic (pubis) Sacrum (sacral)
Sural (sura) Tarsal (tarsus)
Thoracic (thorax) Umbilical (umbilicus)
Front and back drawing of a man showing anatomical adjectives such as frontal, facial, carpel, etc.

Anatomical Orientation and Directions


To be able to direct others to specific anatomical structures, or to find structures based on someone else’s directions, it is useful to have specific pairs of terms that allow you to orient your search with respect to the location of another, known structures. The following pairs of terms are used to make comparisons. Each term is used to orient a first structure or feature with respect to the position of a second structure or feature.

  • Superior/Inferior–Equivalent to above and below when moving along the long axis of a body in anatomical position. The structure that is superior to another is above the second structure when the body is in anatomical position. A feature that is inferior to another is below the second feature when the body is in anatomical position.
  • Proximal/Distal–Equivalent to near and far. Usually used to orient the positions of structures and features along the limbs with respect to the trunk of the body. A feature that is proximal to something else is closer to the limb’s point of attachment to the trunk. A structure that is distal to something else is farther away from the limb’s point of attachment. Less precisely but still occasionally used in the trunk of the body itself to indicate whether something is closer to (proximal) or farther away from (distal) something else.
  • Medial/Lateral–Equivalent to towards the middle or towards the edge. Used with respect to the midline of the trunk of a body in anatomical position. A structure that medial to another is closer to the midline of the body’s trunk. A feature that is lateral to another is farther away from the midline of the trunk.
  • Anterior/Posterior–Equivalent to the front and back of a body in anatomical position. A structure that is anterior to another is closer to the front of the body when the body is in anatomical position. A feature that is posterior to another is closer to the back of the body when the body is in anatomical position.
  • Ventral/Dorsal–Equivalent to belly-side and back-side of a body in anatomical position. For a human in anatomical position, this pair of terms is equivalent to anterior and posterior. However, for four-legged animals in what is considered their anatomical position, the belly-side is not equivalent to the front of the animal. A structure that is ventral to another is closer to the belly-side of the body. A feature that is dorsal to another is closer to the back of the body.
  • Superficial/Deep–Equivalent to closer to the surface and farther from the surface.
  • Cephalic/Caudal–Equivalent to closer to the head and closer to the tail. This is more useful for four-legged animals with tails than for upright humans with only a vestigial tail.

Figure 1-5. Pairs of terms providing anatomical direction or orientation.

cross-section of a bone showing deep (in the center) and superficial areas on the perimeter.

Figure 1-6. Cross-section of the thigh.


1. Fill in the blank with the appropriate directional term to complete the following sentences. More than one answer may be correct.

  • The heart is ____________ to the lungs.
  • The knee is ____________ to the hip.
  • The wrist is ____________ to the hand.
  • The mouth is ____________ to the nose.
  • The thorax is ____________ to the abdomen.
  • The thumb is ____________ to the ring finger.
  • The sternum is ____________ to the heart.
  • The skull is ____________ to the scalp.
  • The ears are ____________ to the nose.
  • Dorsal refers to the ____________ of the human body, while ventral refers to the ____________ of the human body.

2. Find the indicated structures in the diagrams provided, based on the directional terms given. The structure to find will be one of those at the end of an unlabeled line.

A. Label the extensor digitorum muscle in the figure below. It is:

  • Distal to the anconeus muscle
  • Lateral to the extensor digiti minimi muscle
  • Superficial to the Extensor pollicis brevis muscle

Muscles of the forearm depicting the anconeus, extensor pollicis brevis, and the extensor digiti minimi

Figure 1-7. Muscles of the forearm.

B. Label the Incus in the figure below. It is:

  • Superior to the lateral end of the cochlear nerve
  • Medial to the malleus
  • Lateral to the stapes

Image of the inner ear showing the malleus, stapes, and cochlear nerve.

Figure 1-8. Anatomy of the human ear.

3. Using your knowledge of the different body planes shown in Figure 1-2 (shown again below), fill in the blanks with the appropriate body plane for each of the following descriptions.

  1. The plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts is the ________________ plane.
  2. A transverse plane divides the body into ________________ and ________________ regions.
  3. A ________________or ________________ plane divides the body into right and left parts.
Computer generated image of a person's head, showing the transverse cut as a sheet of paper going from the nose out the back of the head, the frontal (coronal) plane as a paper slicing from the tip of the skill down towards the center of the neck and between the ears, the midsagittal plane as a slice from the tip of the head through the neck but cutting along the nose line, and a parasagittal plane as a similar slice (from the tip of the head down to the neck, but through the eye and cheek)

The Human Body Cavities


The major cavities of the human body are the spaces left over when internal organs are removed. There are additional body cavities which we will only discuss in lecture. These are the cavities created by serous membranes–the pleural cavities, the pericardial cavity, and the peritoneal cavity–and the mediastinum.

  • Dorsal body cavity–the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity in combination.
  • Cranial cavity–the space occupied by the brain, enclosed by the skull bones.
  • Spinal cavity–the space occupied by the spinal cord enclosed by the vertebrae column making up the backbone. The spinal cavity is continuous with the cranial cavity.
  • Ventral body cavity–the thoracic cavity, the abdominal cavity, and the pelvic cavity in combination.
  • Thoracic cavity–the space occupied by the ventral internal organs superior to the diaphragm.
  • Abdominopelvic cavity–the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity in combination.
  • Abdominal cavity–the space occupied by the ventral internal organs inferior to the diaphragm and superior to the pelvic cavity.
  • Pelvic cavity–the space occupied by the ventral internal organs that are bordered by the bones of the pelvic girdle.
Side human form showing the dorsal cavity: cranial cavity, spinal cavity, pelvic cavity; and the ventral cavity: thoracic cavity, diaphragm, abdominal cavity, abdominopelvic cavity.

The Human Organ Systems


Organ systems are groups of organs within the body that can be thought of as working together as a unit to carry out specific tasks or functions within the body. The human body is most commonly divided into eleven organ systems, the ones listed below.

It should be kept in mind that these divisions are somewhat arbitrary as to which organs are included and which are excluded. Skeletal muscles attached to bones are part of the muscular system, but the smooth muscles around soft tissues are not. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones, and serve to move the bones, but bones are part of the skeletal system, not the muscular system.

It also bears remembering that no one organ system ever functions independently of the others. The nervous system sends instructions to the muscular system as to when to move particular muscles. The cardiovascular system delivers nutrients and removes wastes from the muscle fibers of the muscular system to allow them to continue to function, etc. Dividing the human body into eleven organ systems is simply a way for the human mind to organize information about what parts do what. In the body itself, the parts that need to interact do interact, regardless of which system they have been grouped into.

The eleven organ systems are shown in Figure 1-10 and 1-11. The figure also lists the organs in each system and some roles for each system.

Six different human figures showing the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, and cardiovascular systems.

Figure 1-10. Organ Systems, part 1.

Six different human forms showing the lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductives (male and female) systems.

Figure 1-11. Organ systems, part 2.

Identifying the major internal organs of the body


For each of the following organs, identify the organ system to which it belongs. There are three organs in this list which each belong to two organ systems; in those cases, list them both.

Brain Ovaries
Cartilage Pancreas
Skin Spleen
Heart Kidneys
Lungs Testes
Mammary glands Gall bladder
Thymus Pituitary gland