Anatomy & Physiology Lab

Human Anatomy and Physiology is a laboratory-based course that investigates the structure and function of the human body. Topics covered will include the basic organization of the body and major body systems along with the impact of diseases on certain systems. Students will engage in many topics and competencies related to understanding the structure and function of the human body. Working  with topics of basic anatomical terminology to the biochemical composition of the human body, all the way into great detail of each of the major systems of the body, students will learn through reading, video lessons, casestudies, collaborative group work, interactive notebook projects, and labs. Students will be responsible for proper use of lab equipment, lab reports, research and projects assigned throughout each unit. Dissection of a fetal pig and other appropriate organs will complement our course work.  One of the goals of this course is to prepare students with the skills necessary to be successful in future science classes in college and medical fields.

  1.  Introduction Human Body

• Overview of organ systems

• Directional and regional terms

• Cavities and planes

• Homeostasis and negative and positive feedback systems

• Medical Terminology

2.   Histology & Levels of organization

  • List the levels of organization
    Name and describe the four basic tissue types and their functions
  • Explain where each tissue type is used in the body
  • Describe the components and the function of Extra Cellular Matric
  • Investigate common causes of cancer and how various tissues, organs, and body systems are affected

3.  Digestive System and Urinary System

• Structure and Functions of organs

• Modes of mechanical digestion

• Chemical digestion (hormones, enzymes, pH)

• Absorption and elimination

• Name parts of GI Tract and accessory organs

• Nutrition and metabolism (production of ATP)

4.  Nervous System

• Functions of nervous system

• Describe the parts of neurons and define the terms nerve, ganglion, tract

• Explain how a myelin sheath is created

• Neural physiology (action potential, synaptic transmission, Na/K pump)

• Brain anatomy and hemispheres

• PNS (autonomic and somatic), fight or flight

• List the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and describe the function and the body regions innervated by each

5.  Cardiovascular System

• Structure and Functions of circulatory system

• Heart structures (chambers, valves, vessels)

• Circulatory routes (systemic, pulmonary, coronary and hepatic portal)

• Blood vessels and pressure

• Blood components, function and typing

• Blood clotting • Regulation and conduction (EKG)

6.   Skeletal System

• Structure and Functions of skeletal system

• Anatomy of long bone

• Bone histology

• Naming all bones of axial and appendicular skeleton

• Formation, growth and repair

• Structural and functional classification of joints

• Types of movement

• Calcium homeostas

7.  Muscular System

• Structure and of muscular system

• Names of all major muscles

• Origin, insertion and action

• Sliding Filament Model

• Neuromuscular junction

• Physiology of muscle contraction

• Muscle metabolism (ATP)

• Fiber types

8. Lymphatic/Immune System

• Functions of lymphatic system

• Structures (vessels, nodes, cells)

• Lines of defense

• Humoral immune response

• Cell mediated immune response

• Immune cell types

• Disease/AIDS

9.  Respiratory System

• Functions of respiratory system

• Anatomy of respiratory tract

• Mechanics and regulation of breathing

• Gas exchange and gas laws

• Hemoglobin and oxygen transport

Extras:

  • Endocrine System
  • Reproductive System
  • Integumentary System

Introduction to Human Anatomy & Physiology

 

Anatomical Position and Planes

Anatomical Position

Information

When anatomists or health professionals identify the location of a structure in the human body, they do so in reference to a body in anatomical position. That is, they figure out the location based on the assumption that the body is starting out in anatomical position.

Anatomical position for a human is when the human stands up, faces forward, has arms extended, and has palms facing out.

Drawing of a man and woman, both facing forward, with their palms facing out.

Figure 1-1. These two people are both in anatomical position.

When referencing a structure that is on one side of the body or the other, we use the terms “anatomical right” and “anatomical left.” Anatomical right means that the structure is on the side that a person in anatomical position would consider their right-hand side (not necessarily on the right of the viewer) and anatomical left means that the structure is the side that a person in anatomical position would consider their left-hand side (which likewise is not necessarily the left side of the viewer.)

 

Anatomical planes

Information

To view the interior of a body, we expose the organs and structures that are visible when that body is cut open along one of four commonly used sectional planes. These planes are the different directions a body is cut to reveal different views of its internal structures.

  • Frontal plane—A vertical cut that separates the front from the back of the specimen. Also known as a coronal plane.
  • Transverse plane—A horizontal cut that separates the top from the bottom of the specimen. Also known as a cross-sectional plane.
  • Midsagittal plane—A vertical cut down the exact center line of the specimen that separates the left half from the right half.
  • Parasagittal plane—A vertical cut that is off-center that separates the left of the specimen from the right in unequal portions. It does not matter whether it is the left side or the right side that is larger, as long as they are not equal.
Computer generated image of a person's head, showing the transverse cut as a sheet of paper going from the nose out the back of the head, the frontal (coronal) plane as a paper slicing from the tip of the skill down towards the center of the neck and between the ears, the midsagittal plane as a slice from the tip of the head through the neck but cutting along the nose line, and a parasagittal plane as a similar slice (from the tip of the head down to the neck, but through the eye and cheek)

Anatomical Vocabulary

Anatomical nouns and adjective for external body parts

Information

Like all areas of science, there is a lot of jargon associated with anatomy and physiology. Often terms are used within the field that differ from what we would name things in everyday conversation. Such jargon usually allows the specialist in the field to be more precise in what exactly they are referring to, but the jargon also can be intimidating and exclusionary. If you don’t know it, you are not in the club.

LAB 1 EXERCISES 1.2

Here are a bunch anatomical adjectives (followed in parentheses by the noun version of the same term). For each, use your smart phone or laptop or whatever is most convenient to you to find what body part the term refers to. (Shortcut hint: the Google search engine will return definitions for words if you type “define: word” in the search box, leaving out the quotation marks.)

Write down the body part or body region next to each term. Use Figure 1.4 to help you make sure you have the correct definition, but look up each definition to make sure you are being accurate.

  1. Find the body part or region indicated by each of the following terms. Use everyday language to describe the part or region. (Forearm, belly, etc.)
Abdominal (abdomen) Acromial (acromion)
Antebrachial (antebrachium) Antecubital (antecubitis)
Auricle (auris) Axillary (axilla)
Brachial (brachium) Buccal (bucca)
Carpal (carpus) Cephalic (cephalus)
Cervical (cervicis) Coxal (coxa)
Cranial (cranium) Crural (crus)
Digital (digit) Dorsal (dorsa)
Facial (facies) Femoral (femur)
Frontal (frons) Gluteal (gluteus)
Inguinal (inguen) Lumbar (lumbus)
Mammary (mamma) Manual (manus)
Mental (mentum) Nasal (nasus)
Olecranal (olecranon) Oral (oris)
Ocular (oculus) Palmar (palma)
Patellar (patella) Pelvic (pelvis)
Plantar (planta) Popliteal (popliteus)
Pubic (pubis) Sacrum (sacral)
Sural (sura) Tarsal (tarsus)
Thoracic (thorax) Umbilical (umbilicus)

 

Front and back drawing of a man showing anatomical adjectives such as frontal, facial, carpel, etc.

 

Anatomical Orientation and Directions

Information

To be able to direct others to specific anatomical structures, or to find structures based on someone else’s directions, it is useful to have specific pairs of terms that allow you to orient your search with respect to the location of another, known structures. The following pairs of terms are used to make comparisons. Each term is used to orient a first structure or feature with respect to the position of a second structure or feature.

  • Superior/Inferior–Equivalent to above and below when moving along the long axis of a body in anatomical position. The structure that is superior to another is above the second structure when the body is in anatomical position. A feature that is inferior to another is below the second feature when the body is in anatomical position.
  • Proximal/Distal–Equivalent to near and far. Usually used to orient the positions of structures and features along the limbs with respect to the trunk of the body. A feature that is proximal to something else is closer to the limb’s point of attachment to the trunk. A structure that is distal to something else is farther away from the limb’s point of attachment. Less precisely but still occasionally used in the trunk of the body itself to indicate whether something is closer to (proximal) or farther away from (distal) something else.
  • Medial/Lateral–Equivalent to towards the middle or towards the edge. Used with respect to the midline of the trunk of a body in anatomical position. A structure that medial to another is closer to the midline of the body’s trunk. A feature that is lateral to another is farther away from the midline of the trunk.
  • Anterior/Posterior–Equivalent to the front and back of a body in anatomical position. A structure that is anterior to another is closer to the front of the body when the body is in anatomical position. A feature that is posterior to another is closer to the back of the body when the body is in anatomical position.
  • Ventral/Dorsal–Equivalent to belly-side and back-side of a body in anatomical position. For a human in anatomical position, this pair of terms is equivalent to anterior and posterior. However, for four-legged animals in what is considered their anatomical position, the belly-side is not equivalent to the front of the animal. A structure that is ventral to another is closer to the belly-side of the body. A feature that is dorsal to another is closer to the back of the body.
  • Superficial/Deep–Equivalent to closer to the surface and farther from the surface.
  • Cephalic/Caudal–Equivalent to closer to the head and closer to the tail. This is more useful for four-legged animals with tails than for upright humans with only a vestigial tail.

 

Figure 1-5. Pairs of terms providing anatomical direction or orientation.

 

 

 

cross-section of a bone showing deep (in the center) and superficial areas on the perimeter.

Figure 1-6. Cross-section of the thigh.

 

 

LAB 1 EXERCISES 1.3

1. Fill in the blank with the appropriate directional term to complete the following sentences. More than one answer may be correct.

  • The heart is ____________ to the lungs.
  • The knee is ____________ to the hip.
  • The wrist is ____________ to the hand.
  • The mouth is ____________ to the nose.
  • The thorax is ____________ to the abdomen.
  • The thumb is ____________ to the ring finger.
  • The sternum is ____________ to the heart.
  • The skull is ____________ to the scalp.
  • The ears are ____________ to the nose.
  • Dorsal refers to the ____________ of the human body, while ventral refers to the ____________ of the human body.

 

2. Find the indicated structures in the diagrams provided, based on the directional terms given. The structure to find will be one of those at the end of an unlabeled line.

A. Label the extensor digitorum muscle in the figure below. It is:

  • Distal to the anconeus muscle
  • Lateral to the extensor digiti minimi muscle
  • Superficial to the Extensor pollicis brevis muscle

Muscles of the forearm depicting the anconeus, extensor pollicis brevis, and the extensor digiti minimi

Figure 1-7. Muscles of the forearm.

 

B. Label the Incus in the figure below. It is:

  • Superior to the lateral end of the cochlear nerve
  • Medial to the malleus
  • Lateral to the stapes

Image of the inner ear showing the malleus, stapes, and cochlear nerve.

Figure 1-8. Anatomy of the human ear.

 

3. Using your knowledge of the different body planes shown in Figure 1-2 (shown again below), fill in the blanks with the appropriate body plane for each of the following descriptions.

  1. The plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts is the ________________ plane.
  2. A transverse plane divides the body into ________________ and ________________ regions.
  3. A ________________or ________________ plane divides the body into right and left parts.
Computer generated image of a person's head, showing the transverse cut as a sheet of paper going from the nose out the back of the head, the frontal (coronal) plane as a paper slicing from the tip of the skill down towards the center of the neck and between the ears, the midsagittal plane as a slice from the tip of the head through the neck but cutting along the nose line, and a parasagittal plane as a similar slice (from the tip of the head down to the neck, but through the eye and cheek)

The Human Body Cavities

Information

The major cavities of the human body are the spaces left over when internal organs are removed. There are additional body cavities which we will only discuss in lecture. These are the cavities created by serous membranes–the pleural cavities, the pericardial cavity, and the peritoneal cavity–and the mediastinum.

  • Dorsal body cavity–the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity in combination.
  • Cranial cavity–the space occupied by the brain, enclosed by the skull bones.
  • Spinal cavity–the space occupied by the spinal cord enclosed by the vertebrae column making up the backbone. The spinal cavity is continuous with the cranial cavity.
  • Ventral body cavity–the thoracic cavity, the abdominal cavity, and the pelvic cavity in combination.
  • Thoracic cavity–the space occupied by the ventral internal organs superior to the diaphragm.
  • Abdominopelvic cavity–the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity in combination.
  • Abdominal cavity–the space occupied by the ventral internal organs inferior to the diaphragm and superior to the pelvic cavity.
  • Pelvic cavity–the space occupied by the ventral internal organs that are bordered by the bones of the pelvic girdle.
Side human form showing the dorsal cavity: cranial cavity, spinal cavity, pelvic cavity; and the ventral cavity: thoracic cavity, diaphragm, abdominal cavity, abdominopelvic cavity.

The Human Organ Systems

Information

Organ systems are groups of organs within the body that can be thought of as working together as a unit to carry out specific tasks or functions within the body. The human body is most commonly divided into eleven organ systems, the ones listed below.

It should be kept in mind that these divisions are somewhat arbitrary as to which organs are included and which are excluded. Skeletal muscles attached to bones are part of the muscular system, but the smooth muscles around soft tissues are not. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones, and serve to move the bones, but bones are part of the skeletal system, not the muscular system.

It also bears remembering that no one organ system ever functions independently of the others. The nervous system sends instructions to the muscular system as to when to move particular muscles. The cardiovascular system delivers nutrients and removes wastes from the muscle fibers of the muscular system to allow them to continue to function, etc. Dividing the human body into eleven organ systems is simply a way for the human mind to organize information about what parts do what. In the body itself, the parts that need to interact do interact, regardless of which system they have been grouped into.

The eleven organ systems are shown in Figure 1-10 and 1-11. The figure also lists the organs in each system and some roles for each system.

 

Six different human figures showing the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, and cardiovascular systems.

Figure 1-10. Organ Systems, part 1.

 

Six different human forms showing the lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductives (male and female) systems.

Figure 1-11. Organ systems, part 2.

Identifying the major internal organs of the body

LAB 1 EXERCISES 1.5

For each of the following organs, identify the organ system to which it belongs. There are three organs in this list which each belong to two organ systems; in those cases, list them both.

Brain Ovaries
Cartilage Pancreas
Skin Spleen
Heart Kidneys
Lungs Testes
Mammary glands Gall bladder
Thymus Pituitary gland

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